Cardiac markers are the substances released from the heart muscle when it is damaged as a result of myocardial infarction more commonly known as a heart attack.
Human heart like any other organ of the human body is made up of cells. These cells are also prone to damage like any other cell. When the heart is damaged, the cell membrane is ruptured and the contents of the heart muscle cells leak out into the surrounding areas, the most important and clinical one being the blood. Since blood can be analyzed via drainage from the superficial veins, the levels of the leaked substances can provide information regarding damage to the heart itself. The most important substances that are taken into account while performing blood tests regarding the cardiac markers include the following:
- Cardiac Troponin
- Creatine Kinase (CK)
- Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
- Myoglobin (Mb)
Cardiac markers , although, are now central to the definition of Acute Myoglobin Infarction (AMI), however they are not useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the acute phase because depending upon the marker, it can take about 2-24 hours for the level to increase in blood and the fact that the blood tests themselves require substantial time for performing properly.
Troponin is released during MI from the cytosolic pool of the myocytes. Its subsequent release is prolonged with degradation of actin and myosin filaments. Because it has increased specificity compared with CK-MB, troponin is a superior marker for myocardial injury. Troponins can also calculate infarct size but the peak must be measured in the 3rd day.
CK resides in the cytosol and facilitates the movement of phosphate into and out of the mitochondria. It is present in large number of tissues however because of this fact it is less specific than troponin. Its levels also rise in muscle diseases and exercise. However it is relatively specific when skeletal muscle injury is not present.
Lactate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. LDH-1 isozyme is normally found in the heart muscle and LDH-2 is found predominately in blood serum. A high LDH-1 level to LDH-2 suggest MI. LH is not as specific as troponin. LDH levels are also high in tissue breakdown or hemolysis. It can mean cancer, meningitis, encephalitis, or HIV.
Myoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen in muscle tissue, including the myocardium and skeletal muscle. Myoglobin is also present in smooth muscle. Following injury to any of these muscles, it appears in the blood more rapidly than any other marker. Myoglobin exhibits high clinical sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction but poor specificity. Every patient with acute myocardial infarction will have elevated myoglobin in the early hours following the onset of chest pain; however, myoglobin elevations may also be indicative of skeletal muscle injury.
Wash your hands before handling food and often during food preparation
Wash your hands after going to the toilet
Wash and sanitize all surfaces and equipment used for food preparation
Protect kitchen areas and food from insects,pets and other animals
Seprate Raw and Cooked
Seprate raw meat,poultry and sea food from other food
Use seprate equipment and utensils such as knives and cutting boards for handling raw foods
Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and repared food
Cook food thoroghly , specially meat , poultry, eggs and sea food
Bring food like soups and stews to boiling to make sure that they have reached 70 degree C
Fore meat and poultry, make sure that juices are clean
Reheat cooked food thoroughly
Keep Food at Safe Temprature
Do not leave cooked food at room temprature for more then 2 hours
Refrigerate promptly all cooked food (preferable below 5 degree C)
Do not store food too long even in refrigrator
Use Safe water and Raw Materials
Use safe water or treat it to make is safe
Select fresh and wholesome foods
Wash fruits and vegetables and do not use food beyond its expiry date
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism–the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down by the digestive juices into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.
After digestion, the glucose passes into our bloodstream where it is available for body cells to use for growth and energy. For the glucose to get into the cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.
When we eat, the pancreas is supposed to automatically produce the right amount of insulin to move the glucose from our blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the body cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
What Are the Different Types of Diabetes?
The three main types of diabetes are:
* Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes
* Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or Type II diabetes
* Gestational diabetes.
Why Is Cholesterol Important?
Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease. High blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. A risk factor is a condition that increases your chance of getting a disease. In fact, the higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. Each year, more than a million Americans have heart attacks, and about a half million people die from heart disease.
How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease?
When there is too much cholesterol (a fat-like substance) in your blood, it builds up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup causes “hardening of the arteries” so that arteries become narrowed and blood flow to the heart is slowed down or blocked. The blood carries oxygen to the heart, and if enough blood and oxygen cannot reach your heart, you may suffer chest pain. If the blood supply to a portion of the heart is completely cut off by a blockage, the result is a heart attack.
High blood cholesterol itself does not cause symptoms, so many people are unaware that their cholesterol level is too high. It is important to find out what your cholesterol numbers are because lowering cholesterol levels that are too high lessens the risk for developing heart disease and reduces the chance of a heart attack or dying of heart disease, even if you already have it. Cholesterol lowering is important for everyone–younger, middle age, and older adults; women and men; and people with or without heart disease.
What Do Your Cholesterol Numbers Mean?
Everyone age 20 and older should have their cholesterol measured at least once every 5 years. It is best to have a blood test called a “lipoprotein profile” to find out your cholesterol numbers. This blood test is done after a 9- to 12-hour fast and gives information about your:
* Total cholesterol
* LDL (bad) cholesterol–the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
* HDL (good) cholesterol–helps keep cholesterol from building up in the arteries
* Triglycerides–another form of fat in your blood
If it is not possible to get a lipoprotein profile done, knowing your total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol can give you a general idea about your cholesterol levels. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL* or more or if your HDL is less than 40 mg/dL, you will need to have a lipoprotein profile done.
1. Don’t use tobacco. If you do, quit. This is the single most important thing you can do to prevent cancer.
2. Eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Fruits and vegetables may lower your risk for some kinds of cancer.
3. If you are a woman, age 50 or older, get a mammogram every one to two years.
4. There is no upper age limit for the Pap test. Even women who have gone through menopause should have regular checkups, including a pelvic exam and a Pap test.
5. Cancers of the colon and rectum are more likely to occur as people get older. Three tests can help find these cancers early: rectal exam, guaiac stool test, and sigmoidoscopy. Ask your doctor how often you should have these tests.
6. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men, especially older men. Discuss with your doctor early detection tests and their benefits and drawbacks.
7. Avoid too much sunlight; wear protective clothing; use sunscreen.
8. Avoid unnecessary x-rays.
9. If you do have cancer, find out what your treatment choices are and which are best for you. And before getting treatment, get a second opinion from another doctor.